What Temperature is Too Hot For Sperm Production?

For optimal sperm production, your testicles need to be several degrees cooler than your body temperature. This is why they hang down in your scrotum, a pouch of skin and a network of blood vessels.

Lifestyle factors like a poor diet, smoking and excessive alcohol intake can impact testicle temperature and sperm quality. But there are also natural ways to improve sperm health and increase fertility.

Tight Clothing

Testicles need to be about two degrees cooler than the body’s normal temperature to produce and sustain healthy sperm. So, any factors that raise the testicles’ temperature will negatively affect sperm health and can contribute to fertility issues in men. This includes tight clothing, prolonged exposure to heat, such as long hot baths or sauna sessions, and cycling for extended periods of time in warm conditions. In addition, frequent contact with scrotal sweat from certain occupations, such as bakers or ceramic oven operators, has been linked to decreased semen quality.

Tight underwear that holds the testicles close to the body may cause the temperature to rise. Tight jeans or bicycle shorts, for example, can be especially problematic. Wearing loose boxer briefs or underwear with a pouch allows the testicles to hang freely and reduces the risk of elevated sperm temperature.

While sperm found on clothing can be an indication of sexual assault or misconduct, it’s important to remember that it could also be transferred through consensual, non-sexual activity. In cases where high sperm temperature is determined to be the cause of fertility problems, there are a number of treatment options available that range from lifestyle changes like wearing looser clothing and avoiding hot tubs or saunas to alternative treatments such as acupuncture and herbal supplements. Talk with your doctor before trying any alternative treatment to ensure that it’s safe and appropriate for you.

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Prolonged Sitting

Sperm are produced in the testicles, which is located inside the scrotum. The ideal temperature for sperm production is just a few degrees lower than the average body temperature of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. When a man exposes his testicles to a high temperature for an extended period of time, it can have a negative impact on sperm count and motility.

Men who work in professions that require them to sit for prolonged periods of time may be at a higher risk of hot sperm. This includes bakers who use ceramic ovens, drivers, and military sailors who spend long periods of time on submarines.

A recent study found that sperm quality was significantly reduced in men who were exposed to high temperatures for an extended period of time. The study also found that air and apparent temperature exposure were associated with sperm count, motility, and other important factors.

The good news is that there are some things that men can do to help prevent hot sperm and improve their fertility. These include wearing loose boxer-style underwear and keeping their scrotal area cool by avoiding tight clothing. Also, drinking plenty of water and avoiding excessive alcohol consumption can help regulate sperm temperature. In addition, a diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables can provide nutrients that support reproductive health.

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Hot Tubs or Saunas

A man’s sperm count can take a beating from being exposed to too much heat. Men who spend time in hot tubs, saunas or taking long hot showers can overheat their testicles and significantly decrease sperm production. These factors can contribute to low sperm count and poor sperm motility, which could make it difficult for sperm to reach an egg or penetrate it.

The testicles are outside the body for a reason – they need to be several degrees cooler than the rest of the body to produce healthy sperm. In a study published in the June edition of OB/GYN News, researchers placed a group of fertile men in a hot tub and found that their sperm counts declined by 50% after just 20 minutes in the warm water. Even longer sauna sessions were also associated with lowered sperm count.

It’s important to note that the negative effects of heat exposure on sperm are generally temporary, and sperm count and quality typically return to normal after exposure to high temperatures is stopped. This is good news for men with low sperm count or slow sperm movement who want to start a family. However, the results from this study should still be a warning to avoid soaking in hot tubs or saunas for now if you’re trying to get pregnant.


There are many factors that can lead to male infertility. Some of these include low sperm production, blockages and abnormal sperm function. Another contributing factor is overheating of the testicles. The testicles have a unique network of blood tubes that eliminate excess heat, but overheating can cause damage to these cells. Overheating of the testicles can occur from both internal and external sources. Some external causes are wearing tight clothing, riding a motorcycle or bicycle, and sauna use. Internal sources of overheating can be caused by smoking, obesity or varicocele.

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A recent study found that exposure to high ambient temperatures reduced sperm progressive motility in semen accumulation (Supplementary Fig. 2). However, the impact of temperature on gamete traits was not immediate and depended on a critical thermal window 2-4 days before laying and ejaculation (see the “Time lag effects of temperature on sperm” section in the Methods).

The researchers attributed this effect to the movement of DNA segments called transposons that are normally repressed during development in both sperm and eggs. They observed that the movement of these segments in sperm under heat stress was more pronounced, leaving more DNA damage. They also found that a higher percentage of minor defects was present in sperm exposed to heat. Dr. Thais Rose dos Santos Hamilton, Leticia Signori de Castro and Marcilio Nichi designed the experimental studies; Patricia Monken de Assis, Adriano Felipe Perez Siqueira, Camilla Mota Mendes and Juliana de Carvalho Delgado provided animal management; and Dr. Mayra Elena Ortiz D’Avila Assumpcao performed enzymatic activities and western-blot analyses.

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